کتاب آمریکا

اثر فرانتس کافکا از انتشارات مرکز - مترجم: علی عبداللهی-ادبیات آلمان

آمریکا در ذهن بسیاری از آدم‌ها، سرزمین رویا و خیال است و یا سرزمین تحقق رویاها. ذهن جوان آغشته به رویا و خیال است. این جوان راهی آمریکا می‌شود تا به آرزوهای خود جامه‌ی عمل بپوشاند. اما آن‌چه اتفاق می‌افتد آمریکای کافکاست، نه آن آمریکای خیالی، رویای خوش به کابوسی بدل می‌شود.


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معرفی کتاب آمریکا از نگاه کاربران
امریکا(مفقودالاثر) ترجمه علی اصغر حداد نشرماهی
مفقودالاثر واریاسیونی است از یک طرح کلی منسجم متشکل از اغوا، خطا، بازخواست و محکومیت. شخصیتهای این رمان عبارتند از کارل روسمن و در کنار او شخصیتی پدرسالار و سلطه جو و زنانی اغواگر. هر یک از اپیزودهای رمان تاییدی است بر یک خطا که در مفقودالاثر هم مانند محاکمه یا حکم وقوع آن مسلم و انکارناپذیر است.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
دو بار کتاب را خوانده ام سالها پیش
البته بار اول نیمه تمام ماند حالا چیزی که از آن به یاد
دارم سفری کافکایی و تلخ است بر فراز دریا
به نظرم قصر بهترین کار کافکا هست و این کتاب
یکجور اوج فضاسازی قصر را دارد که
دیگر دسترسی ناپذیر شده است.... البته نویسنده را گریزی
نیست و کسی که میپرد به اوج میرسد اما برای خواننده ای
مثل من کمی درک این اوج
سخت است و خوب یکی با رمانی مانند قصر ارتباط
برقرار میکند ولی با کار دیگری از همان نویسنده نه.... فکر کنم این کتاب جز
کارهای متاخر کافکا و نیمه تمام هم هست

مشاهده لینک اصلی

Well my friend Chak says to run from this book - she recommends it for @angst-ridden hipsters who arent worth the trouble to [email protected] - which doesnt describe me - I like to think I am worth the trouble to punch. But I saw it in the store with this adorable Edward Gorey cover (totally uncredited) and knew it would be mine all mine. It smells like an old mausoleum but thats what I get for buying a book from the Eisenhower era.

-----

Wow. Weird, weird, weird. I liked the first third of Amerika quite a bit. First, you have the strangeness of 16-year-old Karl packed off to America because he has been seduced by a 35-year-old servant and gotten her pregnant, and his parents dont want him to have to pay child support or alimony. So hes like some kind of Bohemian ragamuffin with no prospects. But then he discovers his uncle is on board the ship, and his uncle is extremely wealthy and takes Karl in and gives him nice things, like a piano, English lessons, and riding lessons. Then you have the utterly surreal chapter set at Mr. Greens enormous fortresslike mansion outside of Manhattan, where a few rooms have been wired for electricity but the bulk of the mansion sits in darkness, with a servant standing here and there with an electric torch, and endless circuitous hallways, and drafts because the walls arent completely finished. Then Mr. Greens daughter Clara turns out to be a fantastic wrestler, who brings Karl down with some quick moves, causing Karl to desperately want to leave and go back to his Uncles house. But then the most surreal thing of all happens, (view spoiler)[Mr. Green delivers to Karl a letter from his uncle severing all ties and demanding no further contact (hide spoiler)].

So Karl heads off down the road, meeting the impoverished, thieving, singularly unappealing ner-do-wells Robinson the Irishman and Delamarche the Frenchman, and this is where the novel started to go downhill for me. I was enjoying the surreal aspects, but they become less intense at this point. In his introduction Klaus Mann writes that Kafka was a huge admirer of Charles Dickens, that he read and reread several Dickens novels while working on Amerika, and that @in Kafkas mind the figure and the works of Dickens were vitally connected with the American atmosphere and [email protected] Kafka wrote that @My intention was, as I now see, to write a Dickens novel, enriched by the sharper lights which I took from our modern times, and by the pallid ones I would have found in my own [email protected] So Robinson and Delamarche are supposed to be Dickensian characters, I gather.

The remnants of surreality in the chapter that takes place in the Hotel Occidental, and Karls job there as lift boy, made me think of the brilliantly surreal novel The Unconsoled by Kazuo Ishiguro and the character in it who is an elderly elevator operator at a hotel in central Europe. I wondered if Ishiguro got some inspiration from this chapter.

Back to Robinson and Delamarche: I hated these two, and they kept popping up like whack-a-moles. Karl ends up living with them and an obese singer Brunelda, in Bruneldas apartment in some highrise tenement north of New York City. Where, in Westchester County? Part of the hilarity of the novel is that Kafka never visited America, he never traveled outside Europe. So where were his impressions coming from? Then the Brunelda chapter ends, and we abruptly move to the last chapter, clearly with gaps in the narrative, as Kafka introduces a character named Fanny whom Karl is delighted to see again, although the reader has never met her. Also in this chapter Karl applies for a job with the @Nature Theatre of [email protected] and gives as his name @Negro,@ which was his nickname at his last post, although this is news to the reader as well. So although I was hating the chapter with Brunelda, Robinson, and Delamarche, my spirits picked up when Karl applied for some whackass job under the name Negro. And then he set off for Oklahoma, and the novel abruptly ended.

Oh, people: this is not magical realism. Please stop shelving it as that.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Life is too short. Dont walk - RUN - away from this book. Masochist that I am, I got more than two-thirds through the book and finally could not stand it anymore. Amerika is about this 16 year old boy named Karl who gets exiled to America by his German parents after impregnating a household servant. Just as he was bewildered and passive during the aforementioned fornication (the maid overtly seduced him), Karl remained so for the rest of the book (at least what I read). Repeatedly, and without seeming to learn from his experiences, Karl was screwed over by fates that even the most lubberly of recreants could have avoided with little to no fancy footwork. I have no idea what Kafka was going for in this book except possibly to fan the flames of existential angst, except his main character never really caught on. I enjoyed The Metamorphosis and The Trial much more. Skip Amerika. Trust me.

In other news that is entirely unrelated to this book or any other, I have coined a new acronym: @[email protected] for @Right-On Fist of [email protected] which is what you show to strangers at a respectable distance, usually outside, when you want to smoothly, yet understatedly remark positively on their feats of derring-do. Again, my genius is documented.

Youre welcome.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Ειναι δυσκολο να υπερασπισεις τον εαυτο σου οταν δεν υπαρχει καλη θεληση μονολογει ο νεαρος και απειρος Καρλ Ροσμαν οταν θα συνειδητοποιησει οτι ο κοσμος ειναι αδικος και σκληρος. Ωστοσο γεματος νεανικη ορμη και ησυχη συνειδηση δε μοιαζει να απογοητευεται απο τις δυσκολιες που προβαλλουν στον δρομο του. Διαφορα μικρα περιστατικα θα τον στιγματισουν απο τη στιγμη που θα φτασει στην Αμερικη συναντωντας καθε λογης ανθρωπους και με συγκινητικη και αφελη απλοτητα θα φτασει ως την καθαρση αναζητωντας την θεση του στην κοινωνια παντα προθυμος να ξεκινησει απο το μηδεν (μακρια απο την τραγικη εξαρση των αλλων δυο μεγαλων μυθιστορηματων του). Το εργο του αυτο παρεμεινε δυστυχως ημιτελες.

مشاهده لینک اصلی

Le avventure di Pinocchio

America è un romanzo incompiuto del 1911 pubblicato postumo nel 1927.

Karl Rossmann è un sedicenne obbediente, serio, diligente che viene mandato in America dai genitori perché accusato di avere messo incinta una cameriera.

Il senso del romanzo inizia già qui. Questa è infatti la prima delle tre occasioni in cui sarà accusato ingiustamente di qualcosa che non ha commesso o di cui non ha colpa e per questo inevitabilmente scacciato. Troviamo qui un lieve parallelismo con il Processo, solo che latteggiamento di Karl è anomalo qui rispetto allo standard kafkiano. Il giovane infatti mantiene in ogni occasione la sua integrità, la sua vitalità, serietà; quando offeso perdona e non esita a rialzarsi immediatamente quando gli succede qualcosa, fiducioso del futuro che lo attende. È ingenuo in modo incredibile, tanto da avermi fatto ricordare in vari passi Pinocchio che si fa abbindolare dal Gatto e la Volpe.

Nel suo agire sembra non esser consapevole di cosa sia giusto e cosa sconveniente; e le molteplici cacciate ricordano molto quella dal paradiso terrestre. Forse discernere tra bene e male significa crescere?
Purtroppo non sapremo mai come Kafka pensava di terminare la storia, la cui conclusione è rimasta quindi sospesa. Rimane solo un vago senso di colpa e un tentativo di rivalsa in una terra, lAmerica, che si rivela spesso unillusione.

Il romanzo è molto semplice, chiaro, diretto e descrittivo. Siamo molto distanti dal Kafka che verrà dopo, più complicato, pessimista e impegnativo. Ho trovato però questa semplicità e questo raccontare per il gusto di raccontare il limite maggiore del libro. Troppo spesso prolisso, noioso, poco efficace. In altre parole, meno intenso.

Non da inserire, a mio avviso, tra i migliori scritti di Kafka.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
This was originally titled The Man Who Disappeared. The first chapter, The Stoker, was published as a short story and often included in the collection The Metamorphosis (see my review HERE) .

It opens with a description of a city, country and continent Kafka never saw:
@New York looked at Karl with the hundred thousand windows of its skyscrapers.@
The ship, too, has windows (of course), but there are more references to them than one might expect in such a few pages.

Karl is only 16 and has been sent, alone, to escape the shame of being seduced by an older maid who bore his son (sexually assertive women are common in Kafkas works - and there is a very flirty kitchen maid on the ship as well). He travelled steerage, where there is @a glimmer of murky light, long since stale from its use in the decks above@, and is due to meet a slightly wealthier uncle in New York.

He disembarks, then remembers he has left something behind, so leaves his trunk on shore, in the care of an acquaintance, and becomes disoriented in the labyrinth of the ship. He is befriended by the ships stoker who overs vague help, but really wants someone to listen to his grievances. During the voyage, Karl had protected his trunk obsessively, but now he seems not to care, and instead, goes to the captain, to petition for the stoker.

Thats just the first chapter. Karls adventures continue on land, in this strange land.

The usual themes of alienation/rejection, aspiring to please/fit in, being bemused and lost in unfamiliar territory and bureaucracy are there, but it is generally more optimistic and realistic than his other novels, though the final chapter (about the Nature Theatre of Oklahoma) is much more surreal, and doesnt really seem to @[email protected] with the rest of the novel.

See my Kafka-related bookshelf for other works by and about Kafka: HERE.


مشاهده لینک اصلی
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