کتاب خویشاوندی های اختیاری

اثر یوهان ولفگانگ فون گوته از انتشارات نشر چشمه - مترجم: سعید پیرمرادی-ادبیات آلمان

یوهان ولفانگ فون گوته در شاهکار ادبی حاضر یکی از دیرپاترین روابط انسانی، یعنی رابطه‌ی زوجی و پیچیدگی‌های ناشی از تقابل احساس و اخلاقیات حاکم بر این رابطه را به تصویر می‌کشد. گفته‌ها و ناگفته‌های بسیاری در این‌باره دارد، گویی در زمان حال و میان ما زندگی می‌کند و می‌نویسد. رمان خویشاوندی‌های اختیاری که از جانب بسیاری معاصران گوته جنجالی نام گرفت، در آفرینش رمان‌های قرن نوزدهم و بیستم تاثیر بسزایی داشت. خویشاوندی‌های اختیاری گوته سرآغاز یک سبک داستان‌سرایی در ادبیات جهانی شد. به دنبال او و با الهام از رمان گوته، مادام بواری فلوبر، آنا کارنینای تولستوی و افی بریست فونتانه عرضه شدند. زمانی که توماس مان کوه جادو را می‌نوشت و بیش از آن، سرگرم نگارش مرگ در ونیز بود، در جست‌وجوی «تعادل میان حس و اخلاق» رمان گوته را بیش از پنج بار خواند، مطلبی که به نظر وی در خویشاوندی‌های اختیاری گوته به کمال نشسته است؛


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Rich couple, pass middle-age. For both, their second marriage. The lady has a young, beautiful foster-daughter and the gentleman has a friend, a former military man (the Captain). Both come to live with them.

The gentleman and the foster-daughter fall in love with each other; the lady and the Major do likewise. From here, Goethe developed his story interspersed with quotable aphorisms about love, marriage, man, woman, relationships, religion and what not. It might have provided scandal and titillation during the start of the 19th century when this was first published, but might bore 21st century readers, like what it did to me.

It must be mentioned, however, that this must have been Goethes own personal favorite as it was loosely based on his own experience. He had lived in with a woman for more than 18 years (they had 5 children) before marrying her in 1806 when he was 57 and she, 41. Thereafter, however, he fell in love with an 18-year-old girl, a foster-daughter of a printer/publisher. This, and his other subsequent affairs with young women, gave him so much inner conflict and made him write beautiful sonnets. Which proved, once again, that exciting things like infidelity, extra-marital affairs and wars are good for literature. In Chapter 11 of this novel Goethe wrote the following after a character had told a story which was eerily similar to what had supposedly really happened to another character:

@The event described had actually happened and had involved the Captain and a woman neighbour of his; it is true it had not happened exactly as the Englishman had told it, but its main features were intact and only individual details had been developed and embellished, as tends to happen with tales of this sort when they have passed firstly through mouths of the crowd and subsequently through the fantasy of an imaginative and stylish narrator. For the most part everything and nothing remains in the end as it [email protected]

From the depths of your despair you wrote and bequeathed us this love story, Goethe. So from the depths of my own despair after slogging through it, I salute you, imaginative and stylish narrator!

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Si deve avere la costanza di leggere fino a 50 pagine dalla fine per poter trovare azione e risoluzione a questo romanzo, che si conclude tragicamente come le più classiche opere romantiche, di cui peraltro Goethe è emblematico padre.
Del resto, se si esclude il finale, tutta lopera sembra essere un escamotage narrativo per poter esporre attraverso i diversi personaggi gli argomenti cari allo scrittore, temi tipici del Romanticismo, che vanno dallammirazione per larte e la classicità allelegia, dallamore eroico alla passione per i viaggi ed il soprannaturale.
Persino gli estratti del diario di una delle protagoniste, Ottilia, sono succedanei ad aforismi legati alla società e ai comportamenti umani, rappresentando cosi uno spaccato dei manierismi ottocenteschi, nonché una personale visione di Goethe del mondo del suo tempo.
Beandoci delle visioni naturali e degli scenari paesaggistici che sembrano a loro volta incarnarsi e divenire per lo più espressioni dei sentimenti dei personaggi dellopera medesima, seguiamo il dipanarsi di una storia damore che inizialmente si manifesta come un intreccio di coppie le cui affinità si dispiegano naturalmente, si evolve con una nascita inaspettata e grottesca (perchè incarnato di tutti i personaggi coinvolti nel ménage) e termina con un triplo lutto, che coinvolge tragicamente coloro che hanno più lottato contro i sentimenti, in maniera vana ed effimera e solo nellaldilà possono trovare pace.
Ho centellinato questo testo, a parte nel rush finale dove volevo sapere al più presto come si sarebbe evoluta la vicenda e ho vissuto le ultime pagine con opprimente angoscia e fugaci sospiri: tipiche reazioni da lettrice romantica, sebbene io detesti le opere drammatiche fini a se stesse come questa!


مشاهده لینک اصلی
This is the first Goethe Ive read since I was forced to read Werther in school, mostly because I hated Werther and thought he was melodramatic and felt sorry for poor Charlotte who didnt deserve to be dragged into his mess. Since this was how I felt about Edvard and Ottilie as well, I think I have to accept that Goethe isnt for me.

There are some books I read where I feel like the author pays attention to the wrong part of the story. In the beginning, there are two pairs of lovers, but somewhere along the way it feels like Goethe drops Charlotte and the Captain for Edvard and Ottilies star-crossed love story. As a result the book feels lopsided, and all the interesting discussions about marriage and duty and right and wrong morally and ethically disappears and instead we get pages upon pages with how perfect and helpful and good Ottilie is. For me, I think Charlotte deserves more, because shes the one who has to keep everything together when her husband disappears to war, the Captain is away and perhaps even getting married, and her daughter seems to be an incredibly spoiled and annoying young lady.

The book isnt bad, however, just not to my taste. I thought there were some interesting parts that made me wish I knew more about the times when Goethe was writing. There is a lot in here about landscaping, art and the natural sciences that Im sure gives a resonance to the writing for someone who knows more about the period than I do. I just wish that Goethe hadnt chosen to write about characters that managed to both annoy and bore me.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Elective Affinities comprises the exploration of a simple conceit -- that human relationships are governed by forces similar to those acting in chemical reactions -- executed meticulously and gloriously. Starting from the relatively stable equilibrium of an apparently happy marriage, new characters are introduced into the experiment (set in the crucible of the grounds and house of a German estate), and things fall apart.

The novel is impeccably structured and paced, and has some of the most perfect characterizations Ive read. Though it begins with simple prose, delicately executed, the density of meaning increases exponentially with time as the situations become fraught -- and yet each new plot development, though surprising when it occurs, seems necessary and obvious in retrospect, falling precisely out of the existing situation.

This was my second attempt (previously I only managed three-quarters of the book before being diverted). Due to its symmetry and constant subtle foreshadowing, this would definitely benefit from a rereading or two, but its perfectly enjoyable as a Romantic novel for those who dont particularly care to admire its execution.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
“La coscienza di amare e di essere amato lo sprona verso l’infinito”

“Una parola esplicita è terribile quando manifesta improvvisamente ciò che il cuore da lungo tempo si è consentito”

Non possiamo imparare a conoscere le persone quando vengono da noi; dobbiamo noi andare da loro per vedere quello che sono.

“Le difficoltà aumentano via via che s’avvicina la meta.”

In qualsiasi modo si immagina noi stessi sempre ci immaginiamo veggenti. Credo che luomo sogni unicamente per non cessare di vedere. Verrà forse un tempo in cui la luce interiore uscirà da noi, in modo che non avremo più bisogno dellaltra

Nessuno è più schiavo di chi si ritiene libero senza esserlo.

Dipendere perché lo si vuole, è la condizione più bella: e sarebbe impossibile senzamore!

Si pretende di curare ogni male là dove si manifesta, e non ci si preoccupa invece di quel punto dovesso ha veramente la sua origine e da dove opera.

Basta amare un essere con tutto il cuore, perchè tutti gli altri ci sembrino degni damore.

3.5 stelle

مشاهده لینک اصلی
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