کتاب دو مسئله بنیادین اخلاق

اثر آرتور شوپنهاور از انتشارات مرکز - مترجم: رضا ولی یاری-ادبیات آلمان

Arthur Schopenhauers The Two Fundamental Problems of Ethics (1841) consists of two groundbreaking essays: On the Freedom of the Will and On the Basis of Morals. The essays make original contributions to ethics and display Schopenhauers erudition, prose-style and flair for philosophical controversy, as well as philosophical views that contrast sharply with the positions of both Kant and Nietzsche. Written accessibly, they do not presuppose the intricate metaphysics which Schopenhauer constructs elsewhere. This is the first English translation of these works to re-unite both essays in one volume. It offers a new translation by Christopher Janaway, together with an introduction, editorial notes on Schopenhauers vocabulary and the different editions of his essays, a chronology of his life, a bibliography, and a glossary of names.


خرید کتاب دو مسئله بنیادین اخلاق
جستجوی کتاب دو مسئله بنیادین اخلاق در گودریدز

معرفی کتاب دو مسئله بنیادین اخلاق از نگاه کاربران
His essay On the Freedom of the Will stunned me. What I got out of it was this: We arent well and truly free after all. The decisions we make are due to our consciousness of other things, our experience in space, time and causality. Our ego, or self-consciousness, suggests we can make decisions, however we have already willed that decision; deep inside us, in this realm of the mind, our will has sort of carved out our true choices and decisions due to the inner worlds experience with the outer world. If one says, @I can walk right, or left, or forward or backward,@ one is given the illusion of free choice (liberum arbitrium indifferentiae); however we have already willed the true decision long before our ego or self-consciousness at the forefront has accepted what decision to take.

Schopenhauer is as German as it gets: Intense, incredibly smart and disciplined. Using quotes and sources from other important texts by the worlds greatest thinkers and poets (Augustine, Hume, Kant, Goethe etc), he defends this philosophical idea right to the last sentence. What we get is an incredibly well-written, deep and rewarding piece of philosophical literature.

This book contains another essay, On the Basis of Morals, which I did not read, hence the four star rating.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
A small masterpiece--

This is probably a great entry point for Schopenhauers philosophy—I read The World as Will and Representation (Volume 1) first and had a good grasp of his metaphysics and ethics, but this little book—clocking at 257 pages—was still an illuminating read. In the first essay on freedom of will, he pretty much demolishes any attempt at finding it, at least in the world of senses/appearances, and thats where you find still valid psychological insights like you cant choose to want something and the like. His discussion of how people mistake the freedom of will as something else entirely was quite amazing (we think were free to do as we please based on the fact that we can do what we will, but then thats a misleading answer because the real question in a nutshell is, @Can we will what we will?@ the answer to which is in the negative).

The second essay is also really good. Continuing his bulldozing of German philosophy, he dismantles Kants categorical imperative in its various formulations. His main argument against it is that it utterly fails to take into account the reality of moral judgments, that it ultimately rests on egoism. His positive account of the basis of morality on compassion is superbly clear, simple, and convincing. Though I had some squabbles with his claim about our indifference toward anothers happiness as such (dont we feel energized or maybe warmed by the sight of, say, people meeting at the airport?), I couldnt help but nod along to his classification of moral incentives into three (egoism, malice, and compassion) as well as his argument for why any moral action is and should be based on compassion alone (and not on, say, Kants universal maxim or any hokum human reason can concoct) and the relationship between compassion and egoism (how they vary in the distinction we make between the I and not-I). All of this mostly jibed with Buddhist thoughts as I understand them, though Schopenhauer disagrees with it over the possibility of changing ones character: he says its impossible, that were stuck with our innate character, but Buddhists might say we can change it to some extent through prolonged meditation practice (which is borne out by science).

All in all, another great read from a great man (but also flawed like any human being, because he shows the slightest trace of anti-Semitism and is glaringly misogynist. I dont want to throw all the good he has to offer just because of those flaws, though).

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Dos textos complementarios a su obra principal presentados a concurso, donde uno (el primero) ganó, y el otro (el segundo), no. Trata de buscar el origen de la moral, qué es la moral, qué fundamento tiene, cómo aplicarla y diferenciarla, si existen principios morales universales.... mucha influencia de Kant que no obstante no se libra de crítica. El primero de los tratados es bastante denso y pesado, pero el segundo es sencillamente magnífico, donde Schopenhauer despliega todo ese aire poético y romántico que a mi parecer posee.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Schopenhauer has absolutely no chill when bashing Kant, Schiller and Fichte in his critique, which makes the beginning half absolutely hilarious.

In terms of grounding morals in the feeling of @compassion@, i worry that he is mistaking this as a moral criterion as opposed to the phenomenology of moral experience.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
کتاب های مرتبط با - کتاب دو مسئله بنیادین اخلاق


 کتاب نارسیس
 کتاب حکمت شادان
 کتاب نقد قوه حکم
 کتاب درآمد به متافیزیک
 کتاب اتفاق
 کتاب مرد است و قتلش، آقا کمال!